ETRIS: Education & Training Resources in In-Vivo Sciences

Ethics and the 3Rs

Humane Endpoints

Humane Endpoints in laboratory animal experimentation provides information and guidance on humane endpoints, and the recognition of pain and distress in research animals. Whilst the materials and resources within it relate specifically to studies utilising rats and mice, the basic information is translatable to other species of research animals. The resource comprises of two sections, an open section, accessible to all, which defines humane endpoints and provides general information on the normal behaviour of mice and rats, an overview of relevant legislation and a database of publications. The closed section, which requires registration (available to individuals involved in research animal welfare, biomedical research or education), contains in-depth information on the behaviour of laboratory rats and mice, clinical signs, assessment of pain and distress in these species and their pathology. It includes interactive training materials, photographs and videos of most clinical signs and a forum for the exchange of information.

This resource has been developed by the Netherlands Centre Alternatives to animal use (NCA) and is available in English, French, Dutch, Spanish and German. Copyright of all materials is retained by the sites developers.

The resource can be used as an information portal for individuals involved in research animal welfare, husbandry or biomedical research. It is suitable for use in education, training and Continued Professional Development, at all levels from undergraduate to researcher. The site also provides a platform to discuss findings and share problems with colleagues or request information on best practice.

Other resources in this category:

  • Animal Welfare Bodies and National Committees - view
  • Animal Welfare, Ethics and the 3Rs: Training materials and resources - view
  • Ethical Review - view
  • Guiding Principles on Good Practice for Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Bodies - view
  • Harm-Benefit Analysis - view
  • Humane Endpoints - view
  • IACUCorner - view
  • Lay Members Handbook - view
  • Norecopa - view
  • Project Evaluation and Retrospective Assessment - view
  • Severity Assessment Framework - view
  • The R of Replacement - view
  • Three Rs Microsite - view

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